Анатолій Кінах

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The development of shipbuilding is an important task for the Ukrainian government, as this industry affects a number of related industrial industries, and at the same time stimulates the employment of highly qualified specialists. In Soviet times, the shipbuilding industry provided itself with electrical appliances and various sophisticated equipment. Currently, the development of shipbuilding in Ukraine is a feeling of pity and at the same time, requires drastic measures by the authorities in order not to lose this unique industry. Such disappointing conclusions are prompted by the recent bankruptcy of the Nikolaev shipbuilding plant. This sad event demonstrated the decline of Ukrainian shipbuilding – an industry that for centuries has been a sign of national pride and the flagship of Ukrainian industry! This shameful bankruptcy has raised a wave of public interest in the problems of Ukrainian shipbuilders, and this status quo must be used to ensure that the authorities take immediate measures to save domestic shipbuilding. The problems of the shipbuilding industry are undoubtedly systemic: outdated material and technical base, which requires large investments (shipyards work on outdated equipment installed in the 80s of last century), lack of a unified system for planning and organizing shipbuilding, huge staff losses and more. The once powerful industry is struggling to overcome the crisis caused, in particular, by a lack of orders and public funding. According to various estimates, today in Ukraine the construction and repair of ships is carried out only at 6-7 shipyards. First of all, it is a question of the enterprises in Nikolaev, Kherson and Kiev. And at one time: “Black Sea Shipyard”, Plant named after 61 Communards, “Ocean”, “Lenin’s Forge” and many others not only ensured the stable development of the Ukrainian economy, but were its symbols, a kind of brand in domestic and foreign markets. Similar industrial facilities were located in the Ukrainian Crimea. Ukrainian shipbuilding has a glorious past. Dozens of merchant ships and warships, up to aircraft carriers, used to be produced annually at domestic shipyards.

This year marks the 30th anniversary of Ukraine’s independence. This is an important date in strengthening the revived Ukrainian statehood, the original aspirations of our people to build a modern, European state in which people will live freely, create their own history, manage their own economy… For the historical process – 30 years, short term, but for Ukrainians an era in which difficulties and victories, ups and downs and economic crises are strongly intertwined …
Ukraine has a thousand-year tradition of statehood – Russia, the Cossack state, state formations of the twentieth century – it was not continuous: under the influence of external conquests and internal strife, Ukrainian territories repeatedly came under the rule of conquering states, people became subjects and objects of denationalization policy. During the Ukrainian Revolution of 1917-1921, Ukrainians managed to restore the state. It changed its name and form several times: the Ukrainian People’s Republic, the Ukrainian State (Hetmanate, 1918), and finally the Ukrainian USSR, after which we gained our modern Independence. At different stages and in different forms of its existence, Ukraine was also diverse. Despite the terrible events, famines and wars, during the Soviet period, our country created a strong industrial and scientific potential – the economy of the Ukrainian SSR was one of the most powerful economic complexes in the Soviet Union. Products of ferrous metallurgy, chemical industry, and mechanical engineering were produced in large quantities. The energy sector grew, and the agricultural sector played a significant role, including the export of agricultural products. The USSR occupied the leading positions in the production of many types of complex engineering products, as of 1984, we produced: 100% rotary excavators, agricultural combines, 95.4% coal cleaning combines, 40.5% blast furnace and steelmaking equipment, about 47% power transformers , 33.8% of metallurgical, rolling equipment, 24% of large electric machines.
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The USSR had a full cycle of creation and production of civil aircraft: aviation scientific and technical complex. OK. Antonov, created in 1946, developed and produced 20 types of original passenger, military transport and special aircraft, as well as about 100 modifications of aircraft. Ukrainian aircraft factories have become powerful modern aviation enterprises: the Kharkiv State Production Enterprise and the Kyiv State Aviation Plant Aviant. The planes built in Ukraine were equipped with domestic engines. They were developed by the Zaporizhia CB “Progress”, founded in 1930. Ukraine played one of the key roles in the development of the shipbuilding industry and the USSR fleet, and inherited a shipbuilding complex that could build everything from an aircraft carrier to a container ship. Some of the products were exported to foreign shipping companies. Design bureaus and research institutes developed and implemented in production, and shipyards built all types of commercial vessels and modern warships, river, fish and fish processing vessels, service (port fleet), research and production and training vessels. Photo 1
Ukrainian designers, scientists and scientists have made a significant contribution to the development of world space science. Domestic companies have occupied and continue to occupy the leading places in world astronautics. The leading role in this is played by the Southern Machine-Building Plant and the Southern Design Bureau in the Dnieper. More than 400 artificial satellites of the Earth have been made at its facilities.
In short, in those days the Ukrainian SSR became a highly developed industrial and agrarian republic with a complex complex of branches of heavy, food, light industry and diversified agriculture. In total, the industry of the Ukrainian SSR numbered about 300 industries.
What have we used from the huge industrial and scientific potential, how have we managed and what place do we occupy in the modern world division of labor and what country will we leave to future generations?

We can say that now there is a “natural market”, not an “organized market”. Yes, there is a certain part of agricultural land that does not fall under the moratorium and is freely bought and sold. But there are some lands that are essentially already sold under long-term leases (up to 50 years) and emphyteusis or the right to use someone else’s land for agricultural purposes. This certainly cannot be called a competitive market with a market price, ”said lawyer Anna Fedun from Poltava, answering LB.ua’s questions. Ukraine (the case of Zelenchuk and Tsitsyura v. Ukraine, Antonenko and Others v. Ukraine). “The European Court of Human Rights has emphasized that the state must take appropriate measures to ensure a fair balance between the interests of agricultural landowners, on the one hand, and the general interests of society, on the other. Given this, we can assume that the state has taken such measures and confirmed its status as a state governed by the rule of law with the principle of legal certainty for its citizens, “the lawyer added.
“Ukraine has, in fact, entered the land market – as unprepared for its civilized use as possible,” said Maksym Chornyi, a lawyer with the Rule of Law Foundation. “This is especially true of state support for small farms, which are unlikely to have the funds to expand their land now. The State Geocadastre is trying to convince farmers and farmers that a full-fledged land audit was conducted in 2020-2021, at least to determine which land is in state and which is in private ownership. There are also promises from government offices to solve problems that will arise in the current regime. The Verkhovna Rada, which passed a number of land laws in two years, also promised to respond promptly if necessary to adopt legislative changes. However, Ukrainian farmers mostly do not believe in the success of land market reform and are afraid of losing the foundation of their existence. ” – says Kryzhanivsky.
The fact that there are and will be problems in the functioning of the Ukrainian land market is acknowledged by the authorities, as this is a law enforcement practice, which is a new phenomenon for both notaries and ordinary citizens of Ukraine. It takes some time to understand the processes and practices of regulating the system of Ukrainian land purchase.
“We have introduced criteria for very high publicity and openness of data. Everyone wants to get the maximum amount of information and we open registers and provide these opportunities,” said Minister of Agrarian Policy and Food Roman Leshchenko and pointed out that the ministry conducts outreach work among people. about their rights and responsibilities, opportunities, government support programs, data openness mechanism. According to him, the government does not want to hurry in this matter, because land reform is a “living organism” that will be improved “in terms of people’s interests.” This explains the fact that Ukraine has adopted a “conservative version of land reform.”

Over the past few decades, man has moved so far away from nature that it has caused a deteriorating environmental situation around the world. Technological progress has accelerated the construction of new cities and businesses, which contribute to the creation of more and more amenities for humans, but at the same time, they contradict the existence of natural ecosystems. The advantages easily become disadvantages if you neglect the riches of nature. Resources must be used wisely so as not to upset the balance of power that exists in a given area. The future of the entire planet depends on the balance of such resources in nature. Not only natural elements can destroy a powerful forest complex – the main enemy of forests is, not surprisingly, man, or rather our economic activity and our attitude to forest ecosystems. The ecology of the entire planet suffers from technologies invented by man. Only cars emit so many harmful elements into the atmosphere that they will be enough to provoke irreversible processes for the global environment. And the salvation in this situation is not so much in the use of alternative fuel sources, as in a multiple increase in the forest! Conversely, with the reduction of non-Earth forest resources, the level of pollution in each corner of the planet increases. Forest – one of the main types of vegetation of the Earth, represented by numerous life forms of plants, among which the main role is played by trees and shrubs, secondary – grasses, shrubs, mosses, lichens and more. Forests as ecological systems are interesting and important in many ways. First, they are one of the few terrestrial ecosystems that have survived in a natural or poorly altered state; secondly, these are the largest ecosystems on Earth, which are characterized by high productivity and which accumulate most of the organic matter of the planet in the form of wood, detritus, humus, which is then used by mankind for their own consumption and to restore endangered in its economic activity components of the biosphere. The total area of forest land is just over 4 billion hectares. The total forest area per person is about 0.8 hectares, and the total world forest biomass is estimated at about 2,000 billion tons. The share of northern coniferous forests (mainly Russia, Canada and the United States) is 14-15%, tropical – 55-60%. Forest areas and timber resources per capita are – respectively, in Canada – 9.4 hectares, 815 m, Russia – 5.2 hectares, 560 m, Finland – 4.9 hectares, 351 m, Sweden – 2.5 hectares , 313 m, USA – 0.9 ha, 88 m. Even before the active human attack on nature, forests occupied almost the entire territory of Europe. Currently, they are preserved in only one third of its area. The greenest European country is Finland, where 70% of the territory is covered by forests. The poorest in this respect is the United Kingdom, where forests account for less than 6% of the country’s total area. As before, large forests are preserved in Asia – in the Siberian lowlands and on the mountain slopes, as well as in tropical and subtropical regions in the southeast of the continent.

Ukraine is a unique country, including in terms of demographics. Why are we dying out? Experts cite various reasons: poor economic situation, high mortality, outflow of young people abroad… The population of any country is formed by two components: natural increase or killing (the difference between births and deaths) and the influx of migrants. In Ukraine, more people have died than been born for several decades. Why? – “The natural decline of the population in our country is caused by two factors, – says an expert at the Institute of Self-Organization – Vadym Gordin. – The main – unfavorable age structure of the population. At the peak of the reproductive age groups is now a small generation that was born in the 1990s. It will determine the birth rate in the next decade, and compared to the situation when it was determined by a large generation of people born in the 1980s, the number of births will continue to decline. An additional factor is the direct reproductive behavior of young women. “There is reason to believe that the generation born in the 1990s will give birth to their first child later and will probably have fewer children on average than the previous generation,” Vadim Gordin continued. Until 2019, the natural decline of the population was partially offset by the influx of migrants, but due to the “corona crisis” their number fell to its lowest level. Plus the slowdown in the economy and population began to decline sharply.
The demographic situation in which we find ourselves today has deteriorated literally before our eyes. A few years ago, we saw the process of returning home so-called “guest workers” and a higher number of births. But this year the birth rate is falling sharply. In Ukrainian society there is a dynamic process of population aging. The tendency of narrowing of reproduction of the population is symptomatic. The situation is complicated by slow economic dynamics, a large “shadow” sector of the economy and the attractiveness of labor markets in neighboring countries.
Demographic development of Ukraine is taking place against the background of such negative trends as population decline (at the beginning of 2020 – 41.9 million people without the temporarily occupied territory of Crimea and Sevastopol, in 2010 – 46 million people, aging population (share of people aged) 65 years and older in the total population in 2020 was 17% (according to the UN grading, the elderly population is considered to be those in which this share is more than 7%.) According to the NAS of Ukraine, in the period up to 2050, the share people aged 60 and over in the total population will increase to 33 percent. , with an average life expectancy at birth in Ukraine in 2019 was 72 years, in the European Union two years ago the average value of this indicator was 81 years.
High premature mortality in working age remains an acute problem in Ukraine, especially among men who live on average 10 years less than women (in developed European countries only 3.5 – 5 years). Labor productivity is only 22% of labor productivity in the European Union. Each year, the number of deaths significantly exceeds the number of births, which leads to persistent depopulation. The birth rate in Ukraine is relatively low, with an average of 12-13 children per 10 women, which does not provide a simple replacement of generations.